Since ancient times, Cannabis sativa has been used effectively by individuals with gastrointestinal disorders. However, in comparison, it is only relatively recently that the mechanism of action behind the beneficial gastrointestinal effect of cannabis and other non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) have been investigated. These compounds act upon receptors that play a critical role in the endocannabinoid system expression in the gut. This commentary will discuss the endocannabinoid system’s role in gut health including its influence on the microbiota and the potential benefits of its modulation in the intestines. The intestinal involvement of the endocannabinoid system in inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and even atherosclerosis will be reviewed.
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